Title IX - Sex Discrimination in Education

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    What Is Title IX?

    School Responsibilities

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination based on sex in programs and activities of federally funded institutions. School district programs and activities must be operated free from discrimination. Key areas addressed by Title IX include: athletics; sexual misconduct, including sexual harassment and sexual violence; pregnant and parenting students; off-campus activities; recruitment and admission; and employment. Schools must protect against discrimination in these areas. Schools must also prohibit retaliation against any person for opposing an unlawful practice or policy, or filing, testifying about, or participating in any complaint under Title IX. 

    In addition to this federal law, the California Education code similarly prohibits schools discriminating against its students on the basis of sex (Education Codes 220-221.1).

    Who Is Covered Under Title IX?

    1. Harassment by students
    2. Harassment by administrators/teachers/staff
    3. Harassment by volunteers or school visitors

    For more information about Title IX and Student Rights

    Title IX Notification

    (Education Code section 221.61)

    Sex Equity in Education Act
    230.  

    Harassment and other discrimination on the basis of sex include, but are not limited to, the following practices:

    (a) On the basis of sex, exclusion of a person or persons from participation in, denial of the benefits of, or subjection to harassment or other discrimination in, any academic, extracurricular, research, occupational training, or other program or activity.

    (b) On the basis of sex, provision of different amounts or types of student financial aid, limitation of eligibility for student financial aid, or the application of different criteria to applicants for student financial aid or for participation in the provision of student financial aid by others. Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed to prohibit an educational institution from administering, or assisting in the administration of, scholarships, fellowships, or other forms of student financial aid, established pursuant to domestic or foreign wills, bequests, trusts, or similar legal instruments or by acts of a foreign government, which require that awards be made to members of a particular sex; provided, that the overall effect of the award of these sex-restricted scholarships, fellowships, and other forms of student financial aid does not discriminate on the basis of sex.

    (c) On the basis of sex, exclusion from participation in, or denial of equivalent opportunity in, athletic programs. For purposes of this subdivision, “equivalent” means equal or equal in effect.

    (d) An educational institution may be found to have effectively accommodated the interests and abilities in athletics of both sexes within the meaning of Section 4922 of Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations, as that section exists on January 1, 2003, using any one of the following tests:

    (1) Whether interscholastic level participation opportunities for male and female pupils are provided in numbers substantially proportionate to their respective enrollments.

    (2) Where the members of one sex have been and are underrepresented among interscholastic athletes, whether the school district can show a history and continuing practice of program expansion that is demonstrably responsive to the developing interest and abilities of the members of that sex.

    (3) Where the members of one sex are underrepresented among interscholastic athletes, and the institution cannot show a history and continuing practice of program expansion as required in paragraph (2), whether the school district can demonstrate that the interest and abilities of the members of that sex have been fully and effectively accommodated by the present program.

    (e) If an educational institution must cut its athletic budget, the educational institution shall do so consistently with its legal obligation to comply with both state and federal gender equity laws.

    (f) It is the intent of the Legislature that the three-part test articulated in subdivision (d) be interpreted as it has been in the policies and regulations of the Office of Civil Rights in effect on January 1, 2003.

    (g) On the basis of sex, harassment or other discrimination among persons, including, but not limited to, students and nonstudents, or academic and nonacademic personnel, in employment and the conditions thereof, except as it relates to a bona fide occupational qualification.

    (h) On the basis of sex, the application of any rule concerning the actual or potential parental, family, or marital status of a person, or the exclusion of any person from any program or activity or employment because of pregnancy or related conditions.

    Title IX Student Rights:

    1. Students have the right to equal learning opportunities in their schools, regardless of their gender.
    2. Students and employees may not be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to harassment or other forms of discrimination on the basis of sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression in any program or activity.
    3. Students may not be required to take and/or may not be denied enrollment in a course because of their sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression.
    4. Students have the right to be evaluated and graded without regard to their sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression.
    5. Students must be provided counseling and guidance that is not discriminatory
    6. Counselors may not urge students to enroll in particular classes or programs or activities based on sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression.
    7. Schools must offer female and male students equal opportunities to play sports.
    8. Equipment and supplies, game and practice schedules, budgets, coaching travel allowances, facilities, publicity, support services and tutoring offered to teams are to be equivalent between male and female teams.
    9. Pregnant and parenting students have the same right as any other student to continue in their regular school and in any program for which they qualify.
    10. Students have the right to call the police.

    Student Athlete Bill of Rights

    Education Code Section 221.8

    1. You have the right to fair and equitable treatment and you shall not be discriminated against based on your sex.
    2. You have the right to be provided with an equitable opportunity to participate in all academic extracurricular activities, including athletics.
    3. You have the right to inquire of the athletic director of your school as to the athletic opportunities offered by the school.
    4. You have the right to apply for athletic scholarships.
    5. You have the right to receive equitable treatment and benefits in the provision of all of the following:
      • Equipment and supplies.
      • Scheduling of games and practices.
      • Transportation and daily allowances.
      • Access to tutoring.
      • Coaching.
      • Locker rooms.
      • Practice and competitive facilities.
      • Medical and training facilities and services.
      • Publicity.
    6. You have the right to have access to a gender equity coordinator to answer questions regarding gender equity laws.
    7. You have the right to contact the State Department of Education and the California Interscholastic Federation to access information on gender equity laws.
    8. You have the right to file a confidential discrimination complaint with the United States Office of Civil Rights or the State Department of Education if you believe you have been discriminated against or if you believe you have
      received unequal treatment on the basis of your sex.
    9. You have the right to pursue civil remedies if you have been discriminated against.
    10. You have the right to be protected against retaliation if you file a discrimination complaint. 

    For more information about Student Athletes' Rights

How to File a Complaint

Student Athlete Bill of Rights

  • Education Code Section 221.8


    a. You have the right to fair and equitable treatment and you shall not be discriminated against based on your sex.
    b. You have the right to be provided with an equitable opportunity to participate in all academic extracurricular
    activities, including athletics.
    c. You have the right to inquire of the athletic director of your school as to the athletic opportunities offered by
    the school.
    d. You have the right to apply for athletic scholarships.

    e. You have the right to receive equitable treatment and benefits in the provision of all of the following:
    • Equipment and supplies.
    • Scheduling of games and practices.
    • Transportation and daily allowances.
    • Access to tutoring.
    • Coaching.
    • Locker rooms.
    • Practice and competitive facilities.
    • Medical and training facilities and services.
    • Publicity.
    f. You have the right to have access to a gender equity coordinator to answer questions regarding gender equity
    laws.
    g. You have the right to contact the State Department of Education and the California Interscholastic Federation to
    access information on gender equity laws.
    h. You have the right to file a confidential discrimination complaint with the United States Office of Civil Rights or
    the State Department of Education if you believe you have been discriminated against or if you believe you have
    received unequal treatment on the basis of your sex.
    i. You have the right to pursue civil remedies if you have been discriminated against.
    j. You have the right to be protected against retaliation if you file a discrimination complaint.

     

    For more information about Student Athletes' Rights

Board Policy and Administrative Regulation 5145.7 Sexual Harassment

Last Modified on November 4, 2021